Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and is often associated with excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, and family history. In this case, the pancreas continues to produce insulin, but tissue cells become resistant to it. This leads to increased blood glucose levels and the development of hyperglycemia.
The diet for type 2 diabetes is aimed at losing weight, improving cell sensitivity to insulin and normalizing carbohydrate metabolism. Basic principles of diet for type 2 diabetes:
Follow your diet: eat at least 4-5 times a day at the same time, don’t skip breakfast and don’t overeat before bed.
Control the caloric content of food consumed: experts recommend “not eating enough” from 300 to 500 kcal per day. To calculate your individual calorie intake, you can use the formula: (10 x weight in kg) + (6.25 x height in cm) – (5 x age in years) + 5 for men and -161 for women. From the resulting number you need to subtract the required number of calories for weight loss.
Limit the consumption of simple carbohydrates: exclude sugar, honey, sweets, white bread, flour products, potatoes, bananas, grapes and other foods with a high glycemic index (GI) from the diet. GI is a measure of how quickly a food raises blood glucose levels after consumption. The higher the GI, the greater the load on the pancreas and the higher the risk of complications.
Increase your intake of complex carbohydrates: eat vegetables https://greenelly.com/, fruits, berries, herbs, whole grain baked goods, cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley), legumes. These foods have a low or medium GI, contain a lot of fiber, vitamins and minerals, help improve digestion and reduce cholesterol levels.
Reduce fat consumption: limit animal fats (pork, lamb, lard, butter, sour cream, cheese), avoid fried, smoked, salty and spicy foods, mayonnaise, sauces, chips, seeds. Prefer vegetable fats, fish (preferably sea) and seafood. Fats should make up no more than 30% of the total calorie intake.
Balance your protein intake: Protein is essential for building muscle, strengthening the immune system, and maintaining normal blood glucose levels. Proteins should make up about 20% of the total calorie intake. Sources of protein are meat, fish, seafood, eggs, cottage cheese, yogurt, and hard cheeses. It is necessary to choose low-fat or low-fat versions of these products and cook them without adding fat (cook, bake, stew).
Drink enough water: Water helps remove toxins from the body, improves metabolism and maintains normal blood glucose levels. You need to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of clean water per day. In addition, you can drink green or herbal tea without sugar, natural juices from permitted fruits and vegetables (but not more than 200 ml per day), and still mineral water. You cannot drink alcohol, coffee, black tea, carbonated drinks, packaged juices and nectars.